An innovative practical method to produce graphene sheets for the first time in the world is designed. The process requires neither dangerous conditions nor toxic chemicals and is achievable by modern technology. The design of the method is guided by the “compress – excite” theory.
The basics of “compress-excite” theory
Chemical reactions are defined as molecular bond formations or dissociations between atoms.
The formation of a molecular bond depends on the distance between two atoms, and the availability of electrons in the molecular orbitals. The atoms have to be close enough to allow molecular orbitals to form. The electrons will need to be energized to move into the molecular orbitals.
The dissociation of a molecular bond starts from the removal of electrons from the molecular orbitals and develops into the disband the bond between two atoms. The electrons will need to be energized to move out of molecular orbitals.
The energy required to move electrons between orbitals determines the equilibrium of the chemical reaction
The energy barrier of a chemical reaction is the energy required to reduce the distance between the two reactant atoms
Design of the new innovative practical method
Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms bonded by sigma bonds between sp2 hybridization orbitals and a single pi bond among 2p orbitals of all carbon atoms in the system. Traditional high pressures and high temperatures proved to work in small scales and produced graphene flakes.
The starting material to make large sheets of graphene has to be extreme thin graphite sheets. Physical pressures are applied to the sheet to compress it in order to reduce the distance between carbon atoms. At the same time, the energy to excite electrons is provided by the electromagnetic radiation at defined wavelengths. The working principle is that the electromagnetic radiation at the right wavelength creates a state where electrons of carbon atoms are ready to be excited to move into the defined molecular orbitals as soon as the molecular orbitals are available, and the defined molecular orbitals are formed between atoms when high pressures force carbon atoms move closer to each other.